You Didn’t Sleep At All Last Night?
Actually, Maybe You Did: Insomnia, Reconsidered
by Dr. Robert Rosenberg, DO
|“Alarm Clock.” Public Domain Image.|
Every year, I see many patients who tell me that they get only a few hours of sleep each night. In fact, I have had several swear they barely sleep at all. In most cases, they honestly believe this to be true. Interestingly, if we bring them into our sleep lab, many of these individuals will insist that they slept only a few hours when their electroencephalogram (EEG) indicates that they actually slept much longer.
This type of insomnia, called Paradoxical Insomnia, is also referred to as Sleep State Misperception. Previously it was considered a rare condition, present–or so we thought–in no more than five percent of insomnia sufferers. We now know this estimate to be incorrect. Furthermore, in several recent studies, the incidence is closer to 50% when defined as misperceiving-sleep-as-wake-time by at least one hour or more per night.
1) Those who sleep greater than six hours a night but perceive they sleep less;
2) Those who actually sleep fewer than six hours, but accurately estimate their sleep time.
Why is it important to differentiate between the two groups of insomniacs? Because those who actually sleep fewer than six hours a night are much more likely to develop hypertension, diabetes, and suffer earlier death than those who misperceive their sleep time. These findings are potentially revolutionary when it comes to our understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of insomnia. Consequently, we need objective data in order to differentiate these two types, since effective treatment approaches are different.
What I find fascinating is that those with the misperception of their sleep cycles are more likely to respond to CBT (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy), while those who actually sleep fewer than six hours–the short sleeper type–are more likely to require pharmacological therapies. Why? It appears that the short sleepers have an underlying level of physiological hyperarousal. They have elevated levels of stress hormones such as cortisol and adrenaline, while the misperception group seems to demonstrate more of a psychological basis for their insomnia.
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The good news is that in sleep medicine we now have accurate tools for differentiating these two types. We have a device called an actigraph that is worn like a wristwatch on the subject’s arm. It correlates movement with wakefulness and its absence with sleep. Even more astonishing is a new form of technology called the Sleep Profiler. It records the subject’s brain waves during the night at home, accurately differentiating sleep from wake and also the distinctive stages of sleep. In fact, I have used this form of technology in my own practice with great success.
Due to our new understanding of insomnia and these technological advances, we can offer our patients evidenced-based therapies. As with many other things in medicine, we are learning that in the treatment of insomnia, one size does not fit all.
|Dr. Robert Rosenberg, DO|
Dr. Robert Rosenberg sees patients at his private practices, the Sleep Disorders Centers of Prescott Valley and Flagstaff, and contributes a regular column, Sleep Answers, at EverydayHealth.com. His book, Sleep Soundly Every Night, Feel Fantastic Every Day, was published in June 2014; a copy of it will be selected as a prize in this month’s SleepyHeadCENTRAL giveaway. Follow Dr. Rosenberg here: